News & Events


Climate change and migration are both highly sensitive topics in today’s political landscape. Research into both issues has reshaped our understanding of the relationship between climate change and the movement of people; however policy makers and civil society organisations have yet to build this new insight into their work. On Friday, December 12th, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the UK Climate Change and Migration Coalition (UKCCMC) hosted a breakfast briefing on the links between climate change and human mobility at the Institute for Strategic Dialogue in London, as part of a series of events organised by Oxford University’s Centre on Migration Policy and Society (COMPAS).

Friday’s breakfast briefing provided an opportunity for IOM and UKCCMC to present the latest research and policy developments on the climate change-migration nexus. Speaker Dina Ionesco, Policy Officer at IOM, gave prominence to the potential of migration as a positive adaptation strategy that can be supported by policy action whilst at the same time drawing attention to the capacities needed at this policy level to respond to issue associated with human mobility in the context of climate change.

Alex Randall, Coordinator at UKCCMC, then presented the key advocacy opportunities for migrant and refugee sector organisations in the UK to contribute to the dialogue on mobility and environment. UKCCMC aims to challenge the lack of long-term strategies to support and protect people at risk of displacement linked to environmental change. Their goal is to advocate for people-centred policy responses at national and international level.

Alex Randall remarked, “There is a need for policy in this area to be shaped by civil society groups who work with and understand the needs of people who move, and grasp the nuances and controversies of carrying out advocacy on migration and displacement.”

IOM’s strategy on migration, environment and climate change was shaped through two parallel processes: on the one hand the development of operational activities at a field level in response to migrants’ needs and obligations to address them, and on the other hand work at policy, legal and research levels to conceptualize the complex linkages between migration and climate.

IOM’s priority areas in addressing climate change effects on migration have focused on improving the evidence base to develop targeted policies, and building capacities to cohere policy and practice to speak the same language. Recognizing the key role of civil society in this process, Dina Ionesco noted that “further collaboration is needed to ensure that a wide range of policy options is developed”.

Friday’s briefing was followed by a Q&A in which participants discussed the opportunities and challenges in managing environmental migration at each stage of the migration cycle to minimise forced or unmanaged migration, provide protection to those affected, and to enable migration as an adaptation strategy.

The COMPAS breakfast briefing, a monthly presentation of topical research on migration issues targeting policy makers and other research users, coincided with the close of the 20th Conference of the Parties in which IOM engaged with the UNFCCC, states and partners to bring human mobility onto the climate negotiations agenda. To listen to the podcast of the event, please click here.

To read more about the issue, IOM’s Outlook publication on Migration, Environment and Climate change can be downloaded here.

For more information, please contact Dina Ionesco at

The number of deaths at sea in 2014 continues to rise and has reached unprecedented levels since 2010. Data collection has become a crucial element to understanding the profiles of those who are most at risk. This was the main topic of discussion on Wednesday, December 3rd at the IOM office in London where Frank Laczko, Head of the IOM Migration Research Division, presented the findings of the report “Fatal Journeys: Tracking lives lost during Migration”.

The document, published by IOM in October 2014, is the first ever research estimating the number of migrant deaths in border areas around the world.

The report aims to contribute to the efforts to reduce fatalities occurring during migration through the collection of data to inform and develop tailored policies to protect potentially vulnerable migrants in border crossings. The presentation was attended by a number of leading organisations working in the Mediterranean region, such as UNHCR and the British Red Cross.

It is estimated that over 4,400 migrants have died around the world in 2014, and over 70% of these have occurred in the Mediterranean Sea. This is 80% higher than the number recorded in 2013 (2,400). Improved and publicly accessible data on migrant deaths is a crucial element to determine the causes, promote accountability and tailor an active response against these continued fatalities.

The lack of reliable sources, missing information and the involvement of smugglers and criminal actors are among the limitations in tracking the deaths of irregular migrants. “By putting a number on deaths, even if it is only an educated estimate, we at least acknowledge the existence of these deaths… a quantified tragedy that must be addressed” stated Laczko.

IOM has captured data on deaths during migration through its Missing Migrants Project and will use its social media networks to engage with migrants that have made the dangerous journeys across sea to build a better picture of the motivations and consequences of such migration routes.

The presentation comes amid growing concerns over a report that there have been at least three fatal migrant shipwrecks since December 5th, where as many as 100 migrants have lost their lives off African coasts near Spain, Italy and Yemen. These figures demonstrate how winter’s approach has not significantly curbed the number of migrants seeking safety, nor altered the lethal nature of many of these voyages.

For more information on the Missing Migrants Project, please click here. The full report on report “Fatal Journeys: Tracking lives lost during Migration” can be downloaded at here.

For more information please contact Jenniffer Dew

As part of the project “Strengthening the dialogue and cooperation between the European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean (EU-LAC)”, IOM has carried out a pilot project that aims to prepare the groundwork to generate efficient and transparent information about transferring remittances. The goal of this project is to generate sources of information for Colombian migrants in the United Kingdom to allow them to take informed decisions regarding remittances.

To fulfill these aims, on the 28th November 2014 at 6.00 pm, IOM UK hosted an event to launch the website “Remesas Colombia” ( Colombian migrants, members of different grass roots organizations that work with Latin American migrants, as well as managers from different Money Transfer Operators (MTOs) all attended the event. The launch of the website aimed to address the challenges that exist in the area of remittances and migration within the community. The event also provided the opportunity for feedback to be gathered from everyone who attended.

Remittances sent home are undeniably important components of development as well as benefiting the economy of many countries. In the case of Colombia, remittances sent home by migrants represent the third highest source of income to the country’s economy. However, migrants do not necessarily have access to clear information about the different services available, the costs involved in the transactions and the choice of MTOs. To identify their needs, IOM carried out different discussion groups with the Colombian migrant community in order to collect information about their understanding of the remittances market and to determine their knowledge of and access to financial services in the UK and Colombia. Additionally, many different migrant organisations within the UK acted as a bridge to provide access to the wider community of Colombian migrants.

The website “Remesas Colombia” would stand as a reliable source of information on remittances. IOM also hopes this website will be the first of many others steps to provide adequate and up to date information to migrants, to permit them to make better and informed decisions when sending money home.

156 Member States will gather to review IOM’s work in 2014 including its programmes and budget for 2015. IOM UK is particularly thrilled to announce that this year’s Council meeting will grant two organisations from the UK the Observer Status* : AFFORD and Migrant Help. This is due to the close and cordial relationship with both the organisations as a result of working together over the years in the field of migration and development and counter-trafficking respectively, which has led to enhanced project implementation for common causes.

AFFORD is a pioneering diaspora-development organisation set up in the UK in 1994 with the mission to “expand and enhance the contribution that Africans in the diaspora make to Africa’s development’’.

AFFORD and IOM UK have been collaborating since the 2006 UN High-level Dialogue (HLD) and more intensely in 2013 as part of the HLD and post 2015 processes. Since 2011, IOM UK has consistently worked towards strengthening relations with AFFORD in the engagement, enablement and empowerment activities for African diaspora organisations through capacity building policy and advocacy training.

Most recently, IOM UK has successfully collaborated with AFFORD on the mapping of Sierra Leonean and Basotho diaspora health care workers in the UK. Joint training initiatives have also been facilitated, as in the training of Foreign Ministry staff of Ethiopia and Ghana.

“As the issue of mobility moves up the international agenda, we are keen to deepen present and future collaboration in the field of migration, diaspora and development, specifically on: post 2015; enterprise and employment; remittances and investment; engagement and capacity building; research, policy and advocacy” Onyekachi Wambo, Director Engagement and Policy, AFFORD.

Migrant Help is an independent, non-campaigning national charity which has been delivering support and advice services to migrants for more than 50 years. They provide vulnerable individuals with the resources and support they need to find safety, access appropriate services and develop greater independence.

The relationship between IOM UK and Migrant Help has developed into a vital collaboration of work to reduce modern day slavery and migrant suffering, through joint projects in the field of counter trafficking and in enhancing the return and reintegration process of migrants. IOM UK and Migrant Help have an ongoing commitment to working partnerships that includes but is not limited to joint work through the UK Institute for Migration Research, joint awareness raising events with the IOM UK, collaborative presentations for the World Migration Report, Stronger Together anti-trafficking training and Assisted Voluntary Return.

“As IOM Chief of Mission in the UK, it has been my priority to enhance collaboration with other agencies and academia to ensure a better understanding of migration issues, maximising migrants’ positive contributions and better support offered to migrants in need” Clarissa Azkoul, IOM UK Chief of Mission in the UK

*Observer status is a privilege granted by some organizations to non-members to give them an ability to participate in the organization's activities.

Yesterday (16/10), in support of European Anti-Slavery Day 2014, IOM UK and its partners called attention to a fundamental rights issue that is being sacrificed at the altar of fashion – freedom.

“Fashioned for Freedom”, an awareness-raising fashion show celebrating brands that ensure nobody is exploited in the creation of their products, took to the catwalk at St. Mary’s, Bryanston Square in London’s Marylebone last night.

Fashion houses Beulah London, People Tree, Zoe Boomer, Nancy Dee, Mayamiko, Betty & Betts, Fikay and Brothers We Stand presented a pageant of beautiful and sharp body wear produced at no cost to human freedom and dignity.

The contemporary dance company The Natashas’ Project presented a moving portrayal of human trafficking – “the new slavery.”

Fashioned for Freedom aims to educate audiences about the hidden costs in what they wear – especially clothes produced by companies that do not subscribe to ethical, slavery-free production.

Clarissa Azkoul, Chief of Mission of IOM UK, said: “We believe awareness raising and empowering the public through knowledge about trafficking will allow them to make informed, ethical consumer decisions. Anti-Slavery Day allows us, each year, to put the spotlight on the voiceless victims.”

The London fashion show, held annually, aims to be a catalyst in making the public close ranks against fashion businesses that exploit labor, particularly women, and children; and in drumming up support for those that espouse humane, decent labor practices.

“I have faith that some grassroots initiatives will be kicked off as a result of Fashioned for Freedom, and I am very proud to have been involved,” noted presenter Angela Buttolph, Editor of

The proceeds from this year’s event will go to help rescue “fishing children” in Ghana. These children – some as young as four years old – spend their days on Lake Volta collecting fish, diving under the water to disentangle nets, while also serving as domestic helpers in fishermen’s homes. IOM, its partner NGOs and government agencies have been working to help this group of children to enjoy their rights to health, education and freedom from exploitation since 2002.

For more information please contact Clarissa Azkoul at IOM UK, Tel. +44 20 7811 600, Email:

IOM, in cooperation with AFFORD, Equinox Consulting, and the Centre for African Studies, hosted a lively discussion on “The role of diaspora in health and education emergencies: spotlight on Lesotho and Nigeria” at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London on October 14.

The event, which marked Global Diaspora Week (GDW), brought together members of the diaspora, diaspora associations and academics to present the findings of two IOM-commissioned research reports on Nigerian health and education professionals and Basotho health professionals the UK. The evening was opened by the High Commissioner of Lesotho, H.E. Felleng Makeka, who welcomed the opportunity to interact with the diverse range of diaspora professionals present.

IOM recognises that engaging transnational communities to respond to the needs of their home countries requires – as a starting point - sound knowledge of their socio-economic characteristics, their willingness to get involved in specific initiatives, and the barriers they may face in doing so.

The findings presented during the event highlighted the important contributions to life in the countries of origin that UK diaspora communities are already making. This is often through informal links or person-to-person contact. The motives and forms of engagement are diverse and characterised by circumstances in the UK and in the country of origin, but also personal factors.

Some of the concerns raised by diaspora members during the course of the research were related to personal security, professional development, and economic considerations which appear to be potential barriers to engagement in their countries of origin. Similarly the absence of structured and organised programmes to enable skills transfers to take place was highlighted as a stumbling block for better engagement.

The presentations provided a springboard to stimulate dialogue on how the diaspora can respond to the ongoing Ebola crisis, as outlined by Onyekachi Wambu of AFFORD during his opening remarks: “We have been talking about diaspora and development since AFFORD was established 20 years ago, and we have seen the quality of the discussions improve. But emergencies heighten the critical need for diaspora in action. If we don’t act in emergencies then what is the point of all the dialogue?”

Audience members discussed the ways in which the UK’s diaspora communities were already responding to the Ebola crisis in different and innovative ways, by advising the government of Nigeria on how to contain their cases and by the recruitment of medical and non-medical personnel to work in Sierra Leone. Members of the Sierra Leone Diaspora Ebola Taskforce spoke of how those with invaluable medical and technical expertise, cultural knowledge and awareness could help combat the epidemic.

Somalia faces major human resource gaps as it attempts to move forwards and achieve the reconstruction and peacebuilding objectives set out in Vision 2016. The Somali diaspora present a unique reserve of experts with skills and professional experience combined with local knowledge of their country of origin. Mobilizing Somali diaspora resources to strengthen the institutional capacities of government agencies to manage and realise their own goals is a non-traditional development approach that has been delivering sustainable results since 2009.

The Migration for Development (MIDA) Somalia programme, implemented by IOM in collaboration with the Somali authorities, allows for skills transfers to take place through short-term assignments of diaspora professionals in Somalia and to date has placed over 300 experts.
“Our mission is to contribute to the on-going process of stabilization and state-building of Somalia by developing the capacities of key government institutions through the mobilization of Somali diaspora resources” states the MIDA Somali programme manager Frantz Celestin. “Some diaspora Somalis see themselves as pioneers and want to be part of the effort to do away with Somalia’s second name – failed state” he added.

The United Kingdom is host to one of the largest and longest established Somali communities in Europe, with an estimated population of around 90,000. To inform the Somali diaspora in the UK about the programme and opportunities to participate, the IOM office in the UK organised an outreach event in collaboration with the MIDA Somalia partner, the Worldwide Somali Student and Professionals (WSSP). WSSP, a London based NGO that was established at University College London (UCL) in 2010, aims to recruit Somali students and professionals working in the fields of engineering, healthcare, education and agriculture, and enlist their services in Somalia's ongoing post-conflict reconstruction process. WSSP currently hosts the largest global Somali Professionals network and has already facilitated capacity building assignments for over 70 Somali professionals from around the world as part of its Operation Restore Home programme which began 2011.

The event which took place on Wednesday was attended by those with a healthcare background, and those with experience in the legal sector and in public finance management, who were keen to find out about the programme and how they could get involved and apply for relevant vacancies.

The founder of WSSP, Kasim Ali, commented that “we have an extensive network of professionals who work in critically important sectors, such as health, education, finance and justice. Many are actively seeking opportunities to share their skills and help shape the future of the country so we are happy to support this programme through this joint event”.

The IOM UK Chief of Mission, Clarissa Azkoul, who participated in the event noted that “it is incredibly rewarding to be able to support the Somali community in UK, through the MIDA programme, engaging and facilitating their direct contribution to their home country”.

For further information about the programme please contact Frantz Celestin

Migration can be a key development enabler for both source and destination countries – but the potential benefits depend upon the realisation of migrants’ capabilities and rights. This was the starting point for a two-day conference hosted by CARE International UK and the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) in London on Women Migration and Development: Investing in the Future on the 18th and 19th July, 2014.

Among a group of global experts, including UN Women, the ILO and the World Bank, IOM panellists highlighted how integrating migration in the post-2015 agenda, and improving migrant health, can help leverage the positive development outcomes of migration. Addressing participants, Barbara Rijks from the IOM Migration Health Division outlined the importance of health to enhance migrants’ personal well-being, that of their families, and communities of origin and destination. “Addressing migration related health challenges, including ensuring migrants’ equitable access to health services, are important priorities in reaching global socio-economic development goals,” noted Rijks.

Discussing the health risks migrants face while working and living in hazardous environments, which are often characterized by discrimination and insecurity, Rijks commented that direct health costs for migrants remain high.

Ensuring that migration is a core part of the future international development agenda was one of the key priorities for debate during the conference. Additional priorities included the need for regional approaches to migration that seek to ensure both source and destination countries reap the benefits. This was highlighted through CARE’s EMPHASIS project that helped build linkages between India, Nepal and Bangladesh to improve migrant healthcare services (including anti-retroviral treatment) and financial flows across borders. The conference participants also focused on the need for states to ratify and implement relevant international and regional standards to protect migrants. This was considered particularly important in sectors dominated by women migrants such as ILO Convention 189 on domestic workers.

Jill Helke, IOM’s Head of International Cooperation and Partnerships, in her keynote speech, reiterated the importance of focusing on migration issues post-2015 and ensuring that it is viewed as a cross-cutting theme. Concluding her speech, she highlighted that one in seven people today are on the move, in what is one of the oldest survival strategies.

For further information, please contact Jenniffer Dew at IOM UK, Tel: +44 207 811 6035

A delegation of six senior Chinese officials from the Ministry of Public Security and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has undertaken a four-day IOM-organized study tour to the United Kingdom.

The visit provided a forum for China and the UK to exchange experiences and enhance dialogue on issues of irregular migration, with a particular focus on alternatives to detention and voluntary return options for irregular migrants.

The tour included technical level meetings between UK and China officials, as well as field visits to various authorities and facilities in the UK.
The visit was part of a broader project: “Improving UK-China Cooperation on Illegal Migration,” which aims to build capacity for migration management in China and strengthen UK-China bilateral cooperation on migration.

The project focuses on increasing cooperation and capacity to manage irregular migration, including the provision of a voluntary return scheme for irregular migrants, with special procedures for the most vulnerable.

It also includes training workshops on international migration legal frameworks, best practices in migration management, and research on key migration policy issues.

”This activity will strengthen UK – China bilateral operational relationships and cooperation in the management of irregular migration, in areas such as identification of nationals, the role of communities in integration, and developing standard operational procedures,” said Pär Liljert, IOM Head of Office in Beijing.

For more information, please contact Pär Liljert, IOM Liaison Office in China, Tel: +8610.5979.9695, Email:

To mark the opening of this year’s Refugee Week, IOM is partnering with the Refugee Council and Sarah Teather MP to host a Parliamentary reception in the Palace of Westminster today. The reception provides an important opportunity to bring together young refugees, parliamentarians and those working with refugees.

Refugee Week will see a UK-wide programme of arts, cultural and educational events and activities that promote a better understanding of why people seek protection abroad. This year, particular focus will be placed on the contributions of young refugees to the UK.

Since 2004, IOM has played a vital role in the resettlement of refugees to the UK via the Gateway Protection Programme in collaboration with the UNHCR, Refugee Council and other refugee support agencies. To date, IOM has supported over 5,700 refugees – many of them children and young people – with activities such as pre-departure health assessments, documentation and facilitating travel to the UK. “IOM ensures the refugee groups are medically fit to travel, that they have adequate documents and receive some cultural orientation. IOM staff accompany the refugees during their travel to the UK, ensuring their comfort and security”, comments Brian Quaife, Resettlement Project Coordinator at IOM UK.

IOM is also supporting with the resettlement of other vulnerable groups, such as via the Direct Entry programme for Iraqi nationals. Under the Syrian Vulnerable Persons Relocation (VPR) scheme, IOM will provide health assessments and travel assistance for those identified for UK resettlement. A total of 33 particularly vulnerable Syrian refugees have so far arrived safely in the UK. IOM also works closely with the British Red Cross on family reunion cases by providing travel assistance to family members of eligible refugees who have been separated around the world. In 2013 over 500 individuals were assisted under this programme.

“The IOM office in the UK is very pleased to partner with Sarah Teather MP, Chair of the All Party Parliamentary Group on Refugees, and the Refugee Council to host this reception and celebrate what promises to be a great Refugee Week for 2014” notes Clarissa Azkoul, the IOM UK Chief of Mission.

For more information, please contact Brian Quaife, +44 207 811 6008

The international community has taken too long to recognize how vulnerable women, girls and children are to gender-based violence in crisis situations, according to IOM Director General William Lacy Swing.

Speaking at the “End Sexual Violence in Conflict: London 2014” global summit yesterday (12/6), he called for international action to ensure that perpetrators never hold positions of power that allow them to commit sexual violence against women. He also called for the creation of a system to compensate victims.

The summit, which is co-chaired by UK Foreign Secretary William Hague and UN Special Envoy Angelina Jolie, is the largest meeting ever held to discuss the role of rape in war and how to stop it. The aim is to create an irreversible momentum against sexual violence in conflict and to find practical ways to impact the reality on the ground.

“IOM is on the front line in the fight against sexual exploitation and abuse, because we work in complex emergencies, including conflicts and natural disasters, where gender violence is widespread,” said Swing. “The prevention of sexual exploitation and abuse (PSEA) must be a priority in emergency response operations and IOM is now integrating PSEA elements into all our activities,” he noted.

The rising incidence of sexual violence associated with human trafficking is another major concern to IOM, he added. “We have identified cases in several recent emergencies, including in Haiti, Libya, Syria, the Philippines following Typhoon Haiyan and in the Central African Republic,” he said.

“Human trafficking flourishes in emergencies because of the increased vulnerability of affected populations, the breakdown of traditional support structures, and weakened state infrastructures and social service support systems,” said Swing. “But, sadly, efforts to combat the problem are rarely given priority in emergency relief operations.”

IOM has responded by ensuring that trafficking is included in the initial needs assessment conducted at the onset of every crisis. IOM staff working in emergencies provide protection and assistance to victims, raise awareness among crisis-affected populations, and work to build the capacity of local authorities to cope with the issue.

Swing also highlighted the importance of programmes to compensate and help the victims of sexual abuse in the aftermath of an emergency. “IOM continues to encounter victims of sexual violence who, years, even decades afterwards, remain without recognition or any effective remedy. This is a key component of peacebuilding and transitional justice after a crisis,” he noted.

For more information please contact Clarissa Azkoul at IOM UK, Email:

Jamaica’s diaspora is among the largest in the world and is estimated to be in excess of three million people, with some 650,000 residing in the United Kingdom. Today, IOM staff from the Jamaica and UK offices are participating in the Fourth Biennial Jamaican Diaspora Conference in Birmingham, UK, to launch an 18-month diaspora mapping project.

Through the project’s website,, members of the Jamaican diaspora will be invited to participate in an online survey in order to determine their location, interests, skills, and willingness to contribute to Jamaica’s development. The results will support the creation of a Logistics Hub which to help address shortages of relevant local skills by identifying persons with maritime industry, logistics, shipping, and engineering experience.

The website will also provide members of the diaspora with a platform to express the needs, concerns and any issues they have in their respective locations. Social media, including Twitter, Facebook and Instagram have also been set-up to further promote the project and provide regular updates.

Results from the survey will further guide the Government’s engagement of the diaspora and strengthen partnerships ensuring a mutually beneficial relationship between Jamaica and its diaspora. The government will also be able to determine the availability of skills within the diaspora relevant to specific industries.

The Government of Jamaica has long recognized the benefits of engaging the diaspora, which has been demonstrated through various Government-led initiatives, including the Biennial Diaspora Conferences, creation of a Diaspora Advisory Board, and the recently drafted Diaspora Policy.

“IOM UK is pleased to launch the diaspora mapping project here in Birmingham where there is a large, vibrant and active Jamaican diaspora. We hope that lots of people visit the website and complete the survey which could lead to a matching of diaspora members with specific expertise to particular skills gaps in Jamaica” notes Clarissa Azkoul, IOM UK Chief of Mission.

A counter trafficking manual developed by IOM in collaboration with the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of England and Wales and the Metropolitan Police Service will be presented in Rome on 9th through 10th April 2014 at the Vatican’s Second International Conference on Human Trafficking.

The manual follows a successful collaboration between IOM and the Catholic Church in England and Wales in the field of counter trafficking launched in 2013 that led to the development of an IOM training programme that has now been delivered to some 150 Catholic clergy and lay people in the United Kingdom.

The training outlines how to recognize victims of trafficking, how to refer a victim once identified, and how to manage the process of return and reintegration, should a victim choose to return home to his or her country.

The manual, which will be presented in Rome later this week by Bishop Patrick Lynch, Chairman of the Office for Migration Policy of the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of England and Wales, targets frontline staff and other people in Catholic dioceses who may come into contact with victims or potential victims.

“It is very rewarding to be able to share this manual with all counterparts attending the (Vatican) conference. We look forward to continuing our collaboration with IOM, to continue training our staff, as well as those of other faith groups in the UK, to raise awareness and combat this important human global issue that is trafficking,” said Bishop Lynch.

IOM is currently extending its training programme to the Anglican Church and to other faith groups, as part of its ongoing efforts to raise awareness of human trafficking in the UK. It provides similar training to other frontline practitioners, including the police, charities, London local council officials, social workers in London’s Westminster and Croydon Council and the UK Home Office.

Article 3 of the UN’s Palermo Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, defines trafficking in persons as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power, or of a position of vulnerability, or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.

To download a copy of the IOM manual, please click here.

For more information please contact Clarissa Azkoul at IOM UK, Email: